Institute for Mediterranean Studies

Proceedings of the Halcyon Days in Crete Symposia

Ottoman Sources for the History of Lefkada

Elias Kolovos (ed.), Ottoman Sources for the History of Lefkada [in Greek], Heraklion: Crete University Press, 2013.

This volume contains translated Ottoman documents relating to the history of Lefkada (Santa Maura) from the fifteenth to the seventeenth century. The sources illuminate the history of the fortress of Santa Maura and of the surrounding settlements, giving us a detailed recording of the villages of Lefkada and of their demographical magnitude, while they also offer a list of Lefkada family names per settlement from the mid-seventeenth century. An extensive introduction places the fortress and the island in the centre of the Ottoman border in the Ionian Sea, which is examined as a military, political and fiscal zone, as well as a field of trade and cultural transactions.

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Halcyon Days in Crete VII cover

Halcyon Days in Crete VII

Antonis Anastasopoulos (ed.), Political Initiatives 'From the Bottom Up' in the Ottoman Empire. Halcyon Days in Crete VII: A Symposium Held in Rethymno, 9-11 January 2009, Rethymno: Crete University Press, 2012.

Were there political initiatives 'from the bottom up' in an empire where the sultan ruled over his 'flock' (reaya) rather than governing citizens with formal civil and political rights in the modern sense of these terms? Taking as its point of departure the title of the ground-breaking article of 1986 by Suraiya Faroqhi, the aim of the 7th Halcyon Days in Crete Symposium, held in 2009, was to explore the nature and forms of political participation in the Ottoman Empire with an emphasis on a 'bottom -up' direction. The result of this project is the 19 papers in this volume, which deal with the matter from various angles and perspectives, thus encouraging the reader to reflect on the meaning and uses of three key concepts: 'political', 'initiative', and 'bottom up', all in the context of the Ottoman Empire, its institutions and society.

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Kostas Lappas, Antonis Anastasopoulos, Elias Kolovos (eds), In memoriam Pinelopi Stathi. Studies in History and Philology [in Greek], Heraklion: Crete University Press, 2010.

This volume, dedicated to the memory of Pinelopi Stathi, contains 29 papers by her friends and colleagues, organized in five parts and covering a wide thematic field. Among others, they investigate themes related to the institutions of the Ottoman state and the Orthodox church, the economic activities of Christians and Muslims under Ottoman rule, social life, the ideological and political use of history, Christian-Muslim and Greek-Turkish relations in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries; also, aspects of early Greek and Arabic literature, Greek education in the Ottoman Empire and the Greek state, as well as religious life. A special part is devoted to Istanbul.

Pinelopi Stathi (1947-2008), researcher in the Centre for Research of Medieval and Modern Hellenism of the Academy of Athens, collaborated closely with IMS and chaired twice the organization committee of its international symposia, "Halcyon Days in Crete".

The volume is in Greek, with abstracts of the papers in English or French.

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Halcyon Days in Crete VI

Antonis Anastasopoulos (ed.), The Eastern Mediterranean Under Ottoman Rule: Crete, 1645-1840. Halcyon Days in Crete VI: A Symposium Held in Rethymno, 13-15 January 2006, Rethymno: Crete University Press, 2008.

The island of Crete was conquered by the Ottomans in the mid-seventeenth century, and was their last significant, and long-lasting, conquest of territory not previously held. Ottoman Crete has in recent years attracted historians' attention for a number of reasons, among which two particularities related to broader themes in Ottoman history stand out: the institution of private landownership in 1670 in breach of the age-long tradition of the miri ('state') land system, and the emergence of a large Muslim population, mainly through the conversion of locals to Islam. The papers in this volume bring to light new archival, narrative, and epigraphic sources for Ottoman Crete and the Eastern Mediterranean, and aspire to contribute to the exploration of these but also other themes: centre-periphery relations and administration of an insular province, taxation, agricultural production, social life, and culture.
This volume is dedicated to Professors Elizabeth A. Zachariadou and Vassilis Demetriades in recognition of their contribution to Ottoman history, and more particularly to the establishment of Ottoman studies at the Institute for Mediterranean Studies/FO.R.T.H and the University of Crete.

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Halcyon Days in Crete V

Antonis Anastasopoulos (ed.), Provincial Elites in the Ottoman Empire. Halcyon Days in Crete V: A Symposium Held in Rethymno, 10-12 January 2003, Rethymno: Crete University Press, 2005.

Provincial elites were an important factor in the life of the Ottoman Empire in many respects: as local leadership, as political figures mediating between the central state and its provinces, as tax-farmers and entrepreneurs, as role models for their peers. There is a wide variety of people who may be regarder as belonging to the Ottoman provincial elites, because of both the extensive territory occupied by the Empire and its longevity. Eighteen contributions published in this volume discuss several aspects of Ottoman provincial elites, both Muslim and non-Muslim. Among the topics covered are the composition and characteristics of the elite, elite culture, patronage, and wealth and power bases, relations of elite figures with the state authorities and other members of the elite, and elite mobility over an extensive period of time ranging from the fifteenth to the early twentieth century.

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Vassilis Demetriades - Dionysia Daskalou (eds), Book of Sacrifices: Names and Confiscated Properties of Christian Rebels in Eastern Crete During the 1821 Revolution [in Greek], Herakleio: Crete University Press, 2003.

This is a joint publishing venture by Crete University Press and the Vikelaia Municipal Library of Herakleion, presenting the 'Codex of Martyrs', the Ottoman register preserved in the Turkish Archives of Herakleion. This register preserves the names of the Christian inhabitants of eastern Crete (organised by province and village name) who were killed, taken prisoner, sold as slaves or escaped during the 1821 revolution and whose properties were confiscated by the Ottoman authorities or given to the victims' heirs. The register also contains the names of those who reverted to Islam and of Christians who owned land outside the walls and houses or shops inside the city of Herakleion. Most of these inhabitants had died during the great massacre at Agios Minas in 1821 and their estates were sold or given to Muslims.
Besides its obvious importance as a valuable source of evidence on the history of the people who perished in that period, the codex is of immense value as a source of information on the consequences of military action against the Christian population, on rural economy, demographic conditions, evolution of names and place-names etc. The translation of the text is accompanied by a photographic reproduction of the document -which is written in Arabic script-, an extensive Introduction and Conclusions, detailed tables of the victims and their estates arranged by province and village, tables of place-names, glossaries, indexes etc.

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Halcyon Days in Crete IV

Elizabeth Zachariadou (ed.), The Kapudan Pasha, His Office and his Domain. Halcyon Days in Crete IV: A Symposium Held in Rethymnon, 7-9 January 2000, Rethymnon: Crete University Press, 2002.

The Ottoman Empire possessed an administrative maritime network extending from the Indian Ocean up to the North African frontier of the Mediterranean Sea and from the Red Sea up to the great river that connected the Turkish territories with Central Europe, the Danube. Twenty-five contributors included in this volume study the leading figure of the Ottoman naval administration, the Kapudan Pasha.

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Halcyon Days in Crete III

Elizabeth Zachariadou (ed.), Natural Disasters in the Ottoman Empire. Halcyon Days in Crete III: A Symposium Held in Rethymnon, 10-12 January 1997, Rethymnon: Crete University Press, 1999.

A natural disaster, such as an earthquake or a flood, sometimes followed by a second disaster, such as fire or an epidemic, constitutes an unforeseen event which has an impact on a society/s economy or edmography and often on the relations of the individual with the state or the religious authorities. Nevertheless, the role of natural disasters in historical developments is ambiguous. The nineteenth studies included in this volume deal with methodology for the study of natural disasters and with problems mentioned above.

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Halcyon Days in Crete II

Elizabeth Zachariadou (ed.), The Via Egnatia under Ottoman Rule (1380-1699). Halcyon Days in Crete II: A Symposium Held in Rethymnon, 9-11 January 1994, Rethymnon: Crete University Press, 1996.

The Via Egnatia crossing the Balkans and stretching from the Adriatic to the Sea of Marmara constituted an axis of strategical and commercial importance for many centuries; it was also connected with cultural exchanges and population movements. The Institute for Mediterranean Studies organised a Symposium focusing on these problems and this volume contains seventeen papers presented at it.

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Halcyon Days in Crete I

Elizabeth Zachariadou (ed.), The Ottoman Emirate (1300-1389). Halcyon Days in Crete I: A Symposium Held in Rethymnon, 11-13 January 1991, Rethymnon: Crete University Press, 1993.

The transformation of a small emirate into the powerful Ottoman empire, which succeeded that of Byzantium and constitutes an impact on the western Christian world for several centuries, remains a phenomenon with a variety of aspects. The theories of the great historians M. F. Koprulu and P. Wittek, both put forward in the 1930s, have recently been challenged. On the other hand, recent findings and subsequent studies have provoked further discussions with new arguments, and provided additional explanations. The role of dervishes has been stressed. Coins have been found which shed new light on the humble findings of the fourteenth-century Turkish emirs. New texts have been discovered while tahrir-defters have clarified early institutions. The Institute for Mediterranean Studies organized a Symposium focusing on a re-examination of the history of the Ottoman emirate and this volume contains seventeen papers presented at it.

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Other publications

Elias Kolovos, Όπου ην κήπος: Η μεσογειακή νησιωτική οικονομία της Άνδρου σύμφωνα με το οθωμανικό κτηματολόγιο του 1670, Herakleion: Πανεπιστημιακές Εκδόσεις Κρήτης και Καΐρειος Βιβλιοθήκη 2017.

This is a case study of a small-scale economy of a Mediterranean island, Andros, in the Aegean Sea, based on a detailed analysis of the Ottoman land and property survey of 1670. The relevant pages from the registers located in the Ottoman Archive of the Prime Ministry (Başbakanlık Osmanlı Arşivi) in Istanbul, Tapu Tahrir 800 and Maliyeden Müdevver 4856, are published in this book in transliteration in Modern Turkish and translation into Greek. The Ottoman register constitutes an almost complete survey of the settlement network and the population of the island during the Ottoman era; the structure of the population and settlements had been already crystalised in the time of the conquest and did not change until very recently. Moreover, the analysis of the properties and of the economy of the island in the late 17th century shows the now forgotten rural past of Andros, an island who had then just begun to participate into the maritime economy, mainly through the commercialisation of silk. Furthermore, the analysis of the distribution of property allows us to study social stratification in early modern Andros.

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Marinos Sariyannis (with a chapter by Ekin Tuşalp Atiyaş), Ottoman Political Thought up to the Tanzimat: A Concise History, Rethymno: Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas - Institute for Mediterranean Studies, 2015.

The monograph, which is available in digital form from the OTTPOL website ("Excellence II"), is the main product of the project. It is a reference study, which brings together the available sources of Ottoman political thought, categorising them into wider ideological trends and seeking their interconnection with socio-political developments. From the last sparks of gaza ideology and the first evidence of Persian political philosophy in the 15th century to the apologists of the West-oriented Military Reforms in the early 19th century, the book constitutes an attempt to study, as comprehensively as possible, a multitude of theories and views, aiming at identifying ideological trends rather than simply recording texts and writers. For the first time, a comprehensive study of the evolution of Ottoman thought, which covers published and unpublished material both from the political literature as such and from legal, geographical or even magical-prognostic works, is attempted.

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Marinos Sariyannis (ed. in-chief), Gülsün Aksoy-Aivali, Marina Demetriadou, Yannis Spyropoulos, Katerina Stathi, and Yorgos Vidras (eds), Antonis Anastasopoulos και Elias Kolovos (consulting editors), New Trends in Ottoman Studies: Papers presented at the 20th CIÉPO Symposium, Rethymno, 27 June - 1 July 2012, Rethymno: University of Crete - Department of History and Archaeology & Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas - Institute for Mediterranean Studies 2014.

This collective project is the publication of the proceedings of the 20th symposium of the International Committee of Oriental and Ottoman Studies (CIÉPO-Comité International des Études Pré-Ottomanes et Ottomanes), held in Rethymnon on 27 June-1 July 2012 by the Department of History and Archaeology of the University of Crete and the Institute of Mediterranean Studies of the Foundation for Research and Technology. Of the 224 papers presented at the conference, 83 were submitted for publication and included in this volume, which aspires to highlight the new trends that exist today in the field of Ottoman historiography. The volume is divided into six thematic axes under the following titles: a. Economy and Finances, b. Institutions and Elites, c. The Ottoman Provinces, d. Inside a Wider World, e. Culture and Ideology, f. Fine Arts, Architecture, and Archaeology.
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Elias Kolovos (ed.), Ottoman Sources for the History of Lefkada [in Greek], Herakleion: Crete University Press, 2013.

This volume contains translated Ottoman documents relating to the history of Lefkada (Santa Maura) from the fifteenth to the seventeenth century. The sources illuminate the history of the fortress of Santa Maura and of the surrounding settlements, giving us a detailed recording of the villages of Lefkada and of their demographical magnitude, while they also offer a list of Lefkada family names per settlement from the mid-seventeenth century. An extensive introduction places the fortress and the island in the centre of the Ottoman border in the Ionian Sea, which is examined as a military, political and fiscal zone, as well as a field of trade and cultural transactions.

To buy the volume, press here.

 

Kostas Lappas, Antonis Anastasopoulos, Elias Kolovos (eds), In memoriam Pinelopi Stathi. Studies in History and Philology [in Greek], Herakleion: Crete University Press, 2010.

This volume, dedicated to the memory of Pinelopi Stathi, contains 29 papers by her friends and colleagues, organised in five parts and covering a wide thematic field. Among others, they investigate themes related to the institutions of the Ottoman state and the Orthodox church, the economic activities of Christians and Muslims under Ottoman rule, social life, the ideological and political use of history, Christian-Muslim and Greek-Turkish relations in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries; also, aspects of early Greek and Arabic literature, Greek education in the Ottoman Empire and the Greek state, as well as religious life. A special part is devoted to Istanbul.

Pinelopi Stathi (1947-2008), researcher in the Centre for Research of Medieval and Modern Hellenism of the Academy of Athens, collaborated closely with IMS and chaired twice the organisation committee of its international symposia, "Halcyon Days in Crete".

The volume is in Greek, with abstracts of the papers in English or French.

To buy the volume, press here.

 

Vassilis Demetriades - Dionysia Daskalou (eds), Book of Sacrifices: Names and Confiscated Properties of Christian Rebels in Eastern Crete During the 1821 Revolution [in Greek], Herakleio: Crete University Press, 2003.

This is a joint publishing venture by Crete University Press and the Vikelaia Municipal Library of Herakleion, presenting the 'Codex of Martyrs', the Ottoman register preserved in the Turkish Archives of Herakleion. This register preserves the names of the Christian inhabitants of eastern Crete (organised by province and village name) who were killed, taken prisoner, sold as slaves or escaped during the 1821 revolution and whose properties were confiscated by the Ottoman authorities or given to the victims' heirs. The register also contains the names of those who reverted to Islam and of Christians who owned land outside the walls and houses or shops inside the city of Herakleion. Most of these inhabitants had died during the great massacre at Agios Minas in 1821 and their estates were sold or given to Muslims.
Besides its obvious importance as a valuable source of evidence on the history of the people who perished in that period, the codex is of immense value as a source of information on the consequences of military action against the Christian population, on rural economy, demographic conditions, evolution of names and place-names etc. The translation of the text is accompanied by a photographic reproduction of the document -which is written in Arabic script-, an extensive Introduction and Conclusions, detailed tables of the victims and their estates arranged by province and village, tables of place-names, glossaries, indexes etc.

To buy the volume, press here.